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GO GREEN : Society and a Green Economy

In the words of Allan Savory, a Zimbabwean ecologist, “Ultimately, the only wealth that can sustain any community, economy or nation is derived from the photosynthetic process - green plants growing on regeneration soil." This sufficiently explains the necessity and significance of a ‘green economy’.


A green economy is defined as low carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive. In a green economy, growth in employment and income are driven by public and private investment into such economic activities, infrastructure and assets that allow reduced carbon emissions and pollution, enhanced energy and resource efficiency, and prevention of the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. These green investments need to be enabled and supported through targeted public expenditure, policy reforms and changes in taxation and regulation.

The UN Environment promotes a development path that understands natural capital as a critical economic asset and a source of public benefits, especially for poor people whose livelihoods depend on natural resources. The notion of green economy does not replace sustainable development, but creates a new focus on the economy, investment, capital and infrastructure, employment and skills and positive social and environmental outcomes across Asia and the Pacific.

The three main areas for the current work on Green Economy are:

  1. Advocacy of a macro-economic approach to sustainable economic growth through regional, sub-regional and natural flora.

  2. Demonstration of Green Economy approaches with a central focus on access to green finance, technology and investments.

  3. Extending support to countries in terms of development and mainstreaming of macro-economic policies to support the transition to a Green Economy.

Green Economy is based on five principles:

1. The Wellbeing Principle: A green economy enables all people to create and enjoy prosperity.

  • The green economy is people-centered. Its purpose is to create genuine, shared prosperity.

  • It focuses on growing wealth that will support wellbeing. This wealth is not merely financial, but includes the full range of human, social, physical and natural capitals.

  • It prioritizes investment and access to the sustainable natural systems, infrastructure, knowledge and education needed for all people to prosper.

  • It offers opportunities for green and decent livelihoods, enterprises and jobs.

  • It is built on collective action for public goods, yet is based on individual choices.

2. The Justice Principle: The green economy promotes equity within and between generations.

  • The green economy is inclusive and non-discriminatory. It shares decision-making, benefits and costs fairly; avoids elite capture; and especially supports women’s empowerment.

  • It promotes the equitable distribution of opportunity and outcome, reducing disparities between people, while also giving sufficient space for wildlife and wilderness.

  • It takes a long-term perspective on the economy, creating wealth and resilience that serve the interests of future citizens, while also acting urgently to tackle today’s multidimensional poverty and injustice.

  • It is based on solidarity and social justice, strengthening trust and social ties, and supporting human rights, the rights of workers, indigenous peoples and minorities, and the right to sustainable development.

  • It promotes empowerment of MSMEs, social enterprises, and sustainable livelihoods.

  • It seeks a fast and fair transition and covers its costs- leaving nobody behind, enabling vulnerable groups to be agents of transition, and innovating in social protection and reskilling.

3. The Planetary Boundaries Principle: The green economy safeguards, restores and invests in nature.

  • An inclusive green economy recognizes and nurtures nature’s diverse values- functional values of providing goods and services that underpin the economy, nature’s cultural values that underpin all of life itself.

  • It acknowledges the limited sustainability of natural capital with other capitals, employing the precautionary principle to avoid loss of critical natural capital and breaching ecological limits.

  • It invests in protecting, growing and restoring biodiversity, soil, water, air and natural systems.

  • It is innovative in managing natural systems, informed by their properties such as circularity, and aligning with local community livelihoods based on biodiversity and natural systems.

4. The Efficiency and Sufficiency Principle: The green economy is geared to support sustainable consumption and protection.

  • An inclusive green economy is low-carbon, resource-conserving, diverse and circular. It embraces new models of economic development that address the challenge of creating prosperity within planetary boundaries.

  • It recognises there must be a significant global shift to limit consumption of natural resources to physically sustainable levels if we are to remain within planetary boundaries.

  • It recognizes a ‘social floor’ of basic goods and services consumption that is essential to meet people’s wellbeing and dignity, as well as unacceptable ‘peaks’ of consumption.

  • It aligns prices, subsidies and incentives with true costs to society, through mechanisms where the ‘polluter pays’ and/or where benefits accrue to those who deliver inclusive green outcomes.

5. The Good Governance Principle: The green economy is guided by integrated, accountable and resilient institutions.

  • An inclusive green economy is evidence-based - its norms and institutions are interdisciplinary, deploying both sound science and economics along with local knowledge for adaptive strategy.

  • It is supported by institutions that are integrated, collaborative and coherent - horizontally across sectors and vertically across governance levels - and with adequate capacity to meet their respective roles in effective, efficient and accountable ways.

  • It requires public participation, prior informed consent; transparency, social dialogue, democratic accountability, and freedom from vested interests in all institutions - public, private and civil society - so that enlightened leadership is complemented by societal demand.

  • It promotes devolved decision-making for local economies and management of natural systems while maintaining strong common, centralized standards, procedures and compliance systems.

  • It builds a financial system with the purpose of delivering wellbeing and sustainability, set up in ways that safely serve the interests of society.

The green economy is a universal and transformative change to the global status quo. It will require a fundamental shift in government priorities. Realising this change is not easy, but it is necessary if we are ever able to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

Written by Srishti Choudhury

Illustrated by Disha Kariwal


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